Tuesday, March 4, 2014

Create an ISO Image from a CD or DVD in Ubuntu

1. Insert the CD or DVD that you want to make an ISO image of.
2. Open a terminal window.
3. Execute the following command:
cat /dev/scd0 > /home/shamanstears/test.iso

where /dev/scd0 is the device name for your drive (to find this, go to disk utility. Also make sure to change the path and iso filename to the desired path and filename.
The disc will begin to spin and the ISO image will start being constructed. Once it has completed, you have an ISO image of your CD. To verify that the image was properly created, mount the ISO file and check the contents.

Saturday, June 29, 2013

Change Ubuntu root Password

Step 1:

Switch the computer on. Go to Grub menu. Generally it appears automatically, if not then HOLD DOWN the SHIFT KEY until the boot menu appears. In the grub menu, choose for therecovery mode option.
It will bring you a black screen with several lines of output being displayed in a flash. Wait for few seconds here.

Step 2:

Now you will be present with different options of recovery mode. Here you need to choose “Root Drop into root shell prompt“. Like in the picture below:

Step 3:

Here, you will be presented with root access (why? Is this not a security fault?) without prompting any password. Use the following command to list all the users available:
ls  /home
From the previous command choose the “username” for which you want to reset or (say) hack the password. Now, use the following command to reset the password for the selected “username“:
passwd username
It prompts for new password. Enter the new password twice:
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
VoilĂ ! There you go. You have just cracked it and now you can easily enter into the system.

Possible Troubleshoot:

While entering the new password you might be prompt with Authentication manipulation error like this:
passwd username
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: Authentication token manipulation error
passwd: password unchanged
The reason for this error is that file system is mounted with read access only. Change the access and remount the file system in the following manner:
mount -rw -o remount /
Now try to reset the password again. It should work now.

Thursday, May 23, 2013

How to stop outlook express message to free up disk space

1) Start the registry editor.
2) Open this key:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Identities\{identity}\Software\Microsoft\Outlook Express\5.0

3) where identity is a string of letters, numbers, and dashes.
4) Set the value of Compact Check Count to 0.
5) Close the registry editor.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Create Bootable USB Pen Drive for Windows 7

Tools Required:
1. USB flash drive with a minimum capacity of 4 GB.
2. Windows 7 Setup DVD.
Step 1 : Plug-in your USB flash drive.
Step 2 : Open the PowerShell (OR Command Prompt if PowerShell Not Exist). If you are using Windows 7/Vista then open it with administrator rights*.
* Goto Start -> All Programs -> Accessories ->Windows PowerShell ->  Right-click on “Windows PowerShell” and select “Run as Administrator”.
Step 3: In the PowerShell, type 
This will start the Microsoft DiskPart utility as shown below:
Now issue the following command:
This will show you a list of  available disks on your system. Disk 0 is usually the hard disk. In my case, Disk 1 is the USB drive (this can be a different one in your case). Now issue the command as shown below:
 above command, 1 is the USB drive number on my system. If you have a different number on your system, then you need to replace 1 with that number.
Step-4: Now issue the following list of commands one by one as shown below:
 Close Power Shell and proceed to the next step.
Step 5: Insert the Windows 7/Vista installation disc and note down the “drive letter” of your DVD drive. In my case, it is “H:”.
Open the command prompt. If you are using Windows 7/Vista then open it with administrator rights*.
* Goto Start -> All Programs -> Accessories -> Right-click on “Command Prompt” and select “Run as Administrator”.
 Now type the following list of commands as shown below:
G: is your USB drive letter)
Step-6: Copy the contents of your Windows 7/Vista installation disk into the USB flash drive.
Directly Copy-Paste All DVD file into Usb Stick Then…
Your USB stick is now ready to boot and install the OS for you. Don’t forget to enable the “USB Boot” option and change the “Boot priority to USB device from hard disk” in your BIOS settings.

Friday, August 12, 2011

Repairing Windows XP in Eight Commands

Getting to the Windows Recovery Console

1. Insert your Windows XP CD into your CD and assure that your CD-ROM drive is capable of boo ting the CD. Configuring your computer to boot f rom CD is outside of the scope of this document, but if you are having trouble, consult Google for assistance.
2. Once you have booted from CD, do not select the option that states: “Press F2 to initiate the Automated System Recovery (ASR) tool.” You’re going to proceed until you see the following screen, at which point you will press the “R” key to enter the recovery console:

* After you have selected the appropriate option from step two, you will be prompted to select a valid Windows installation (Typically number “1″). Select the installation number, (As mentioned, “1″ in most cases), and hit enter. If there is an administrator password for the administrator account, enter it and hit enter. You will be greeted with this screen, which indicates a recovery console at the ready:


Proceeding With the Repair Functions
  • There are eight commands you must enter in sequence to repair any of the issues I noted in the opening of this guide. I will introduce them here, and then show the results graphically in the next six steps. These commands are as follows:
    • C: CD ..
    • C: ATTRIB -H C:\\boot.ini
    • C:ATTRIB -S C:\\boot.ini
    • C:ATRIB -R C:\\boot.ini
    • C: del boot.ini
    • C: BOOTCFG /Rebuild
    • C: CHKDSK /R /F
    • C: FIXBOOT
  • To “Go up a directory” in computing is to revert back to the directory above the current folder you’re operating in. If, for example, I’m in the C:WINDOWSSYSTEM32 directory, and I want to get at a file in the WINDOWS directory, I would merely type CD .. and I would be taken out of the SYSTEM32 folder and up one level to WINDOWS. We’re going to do the same thing here from the WINDOWS folder to get to the basic root of C:

Now that we are at C: we can begin the process of repairing the operating system
and that begins with modifying the attributes of the BOOT.INI file. Briefly, BOOT.INI controls what operating systems the Windows boot process can see, how to load them, and where they’re located on your disk. We’re going to make sure the file is no longer hidden from our prying eyes, remove the flag that sets it as an undeletable system file, and remove the flag that sets it as a file we can only read, but not write to. To do this, we will issue three commands in this step:


to remove the Hidden, System and Read Only flags.

Now that we’ve modified the attributes for the BOOT.INI file, it’s up for deletion. The syntax for it is simple: { DEL | FILE NAME }, e.g., C:DEL BOOT.INI deletes the BOOT.INI file.


Now for the most important step of our process, the BOOTCFG /REBUILD command which searches for pre-existing installations of Windows XP and rebuilds sundry essential components of the Windows operating system, recompiles the BOOT.INI file and corrects a litany of common Windows errors. It is very important that you do one or both of the following two things: First, every Windows XP owner must use /FASTDETECT as an OS Load Option when the rebuild process is finalizing. Secondly, if you are the owner of a CPU featuring Intel’s XD or AMD’s NX buffer overflow protection, you must also use /NOEXECUTE=OPTIN as an OS Load Option. I will demonstrate both commands for the purpose of this guide, but do not set NOEXECUTE as a load option if you do not own one of these CPUs. For the “Enter Load Identifier” portion of this command, you should enter the name of the operating system you have installed. If, for example, you are using Windows XP Home, you could type “Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition” for the identifier. This gives the process some authenticity, if you’re keen on being a perfectionist.


This step verifies the integrity of the hard drive containing the Windows XP installation. While this step is not an essential function in our process, it’s still good to be sure that the drive is physically capable of running windows, in that it contains no bad sectors or other corruptions that might be the culprit. No screenshot necessary here! Just type CHKDSK /R /F at the C:> prompt. Let it proceed; it could take in excess of 30 minutes on slower computers, when this is finished move on to the seventh and final step.

This last step also requires no screenshot. When you are at the C:> prompt,
simply type FIXBOOT. This writes a new boot sector to the hard drive and cleans up all the loose ends we created by rebuilding the BOOT.INI file and the system files. When the Windows Recovery Console asks you if you are “Sure you want to write a new bootsector to the partition C: ?” just hit “Y,” then enter to confirm your decision.

Results and wrap-up

It’s time to reboot your PC by typing EXIT in the Windows Recovery Console and confirming the command with a stroke of the enter key. With any luck, your PC will boot successfully into Windows XP as if your various DLL, Hive, EXE and NTLDR errors never existed. You’ve just saved yourself from many hours of work, frustration, potential data loss and shelling out your hard-earned greenbacks at a brick’n'mortar operation.

Keep in mind that this solution is only designed to resolve the issues introduced in the preface if the cause is unrelated to spyware and viruses; while I have had significant luck with rebuilding heavily-infected systems in the method I have described, it is not guaranteed. If you believe your PC has affected one of these symptoms due to spyware or viruses, today’s fastest-growing PC nuisance, here is our recommended list of software that can help keep your computer safe:

See More :-/tech.icrontic.com

Friday, June 17, 2011

Find Windows XP Product Key From Your Installation CD

1) Insert the Installation CD into your CD / Drive Drive.
2) Explore the CD and navigate to the i386 folder.
3) Open the file UNATTEND.txt and scroll down to the last line.
4) You will find your Windows XP Product key there.

We were able to find the CD key on a Windows XP Corporate Edition installation CD
and would love to know if you were able to find it on your own installation CDs.
Do let us know through your comments on how it went for you.

Tuesday, June 7, 2011

Backup / Restore the Registry

To Backup/Restore the Windows Registry: Windows 9x For XP 2000 click here

If you are in MSDOS, at the C:\Windows prompt type
Attrib -s -r -h C:\Windows\System.dat (press Enter)
Attrib -s -r -h C:\Windows\User.dat (press Enter)

To make the backup copies type:

copy C:\Windows\System.dat C:\Windows\System.000 (press Enter)
copy C:\Windows\User.dat C:\Windows\user.000 (press Enter)

To Restore the Registry

copy C:\Windows\System.000 C:\Windows\System.dat (press Enter)
copy C:\Windows\User.000 C:\Windows\user.dat (press Enter) See More

Change Default Folder Locations

You can change or delete the Windows mandatory locations of folder like My Documents:

1. Open RegEdit
2. Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\ Software\ Microsoft\ Windows\ CurrentVersion\ Explorer\ Shell Folders
3. Change the desired folder location, My Documents is normally list as "Personal"
4. Open the Explorer and rename or create the folder you wish.

To change the desired location of the Program Files folder
1. Go to
2. Change the value of "ProgramFiles", or "ProgramFilesDir"
Now when you install a new program it will default to the new location you have selected. See More

Changing Exchange/Outlook Mailbox Location

To change the location of your mailbox for Exchange:
1. Open RegEdit
2. Go to
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\ Microsoft\Windows Messaging Subsystem\ Profiles
3. Go to the profile you want to change
4. Go to the value name that has the file location for your mailbox (*.PST) file
5. Make the change to file location or name

To change the location of your mailbox for Outlook
1. Open RegEdit
2. Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Outlook (or Outlook Express if Outlook Express)
3. Go to the section "Store Root"
4. Make the change to file location See More

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Thunderbird and Outlook 2007 Backup Path in all OS

Thunderbird Backup Path in all OS

Windows 7 C:\Users\[userName]\AppData\Roaming\Thunderbird
Windows Vista C:\Users\[userName]\AppData\Roaming\Thunderbird
2000/XP/2003 C:\Documents and Settings\[userName]\Application Data\Thunderbird
Windows NT C:\WINNT\Profiles\[userName]\Application Data\Thunderbird
98/98SE/ME C:\Windows\Application Data\Thunderbird
*** This assumes that Windows runs from the default "C:" drive/partition ***
Mac OS X ~/Library/Thunderbird
Linux/UNIX ~/.thunderbird

Outlook 2007 Backup Path in all OS

1 For Outlook 2007 and previous on Windows XP the default location is;
C:\Documents and Settings\%username%\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\

2 For Outlook 2007 and previous on Windows Vista and Windows 7 the default location is;

3 For Outlook 2010 on Windows XP the default location is;
C:\Documents and Settings\%username%\My Documents\Outlook Files\

4 For Outlook 2010 on Windows Vista or Windows 7 the default location is;
C:\Users\%username%\Documents\Outlook Files\